Women are under-represented in India’s economy. At 17 percent, India’s women have the lowest share of contribution to GDP in the world, lower than women in China (41 percent), Sub-Saharan Africa (39 percent), and Latin America (33 percent). Women in India make up just 24 percent of the workforce, compared with 40 percent globally.
Currently only, 17 percent, India’s women have the lowest share of contribution to GDP in the world, lower than women in China (41 percent), Sub-Saharan Africa (39 percent), and Latin America (33 percent).
Women in India make up just 24 percent of the workforce, compared with 40 percent globally. Closing gender gaps in education and expanding skills training could boost India’s female labour force.
Girls’ enrollment in secondary education was 62 percent in 2014, identical to that of boys, indicating no gender gap but signalling a need to raise enrollment levels for both girls and boys.
In tertiary education, female enrollment was 19.8 percent in 2012, while male enrollment was 22.3 percent. Women with skills training in urban areas are more than twice as likely to be in the labour force as those without such training, and about twice as likely in rural areas.
For women to be equal participants in work, they will need to be equal partners in society.
source: The power of parity: Advancing women’s equality in India, McKinsey Global Institute, November 2015.2) Based on data from Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, 2012. MGI -India’s ascent: Five opportunities for growth and transformation picture:http://www.rappler.com/life-and-style/travel/37564-solo-travel-indiaaccessed04/08
Maybe it has to do with equal opportunities – but we know theoretically that our Constitution so well written as definitely ensured that section 9 clearly states in that:
“Everyone is equal before the law and has the right to equal protection and benefit of the law. Every person is therefore entitled to equal treatment by our courts. No one is above the law and all persons are impartially subject to the law.”[i]
Many Black people yet believe that the racial inequality suffered them have disadvantaged them to have taken opportunities that is now been made available.
However, some critics would say that equal opportunities do exist and were once Blacks were segregated and disfranchised have now been given more than they have had and therefore the problems they experience today are of their own peril. Some would even go as far to say that inequality exists between the races are due to the cultural differences in that Black people commit more crimes, they have less marriages and more children and that Black people don’t value education. Unable to budget thereby lavishly buying expensive and extravagant possessions without regard for future preparation.
Conversely, in contrast another critic could easily show how White families today have been directly benefiting from the unfair gains and unjust enrichments made possible by past and present forms of racial discrimination.
It is evident that there are also rights which protect the assets and advantages that Whites have inherited from their ancestors. Many will contest vigorously such claims without considering the direct and indirect legislature policies which had advantaged Whites for which Blacks would have not qualified. Discrimination in government policies which affects property prices, lending, education, employment and not forgetting those who had forcibly taken land from Blacks without compensation.
Therefore, money passed down across generations through inheritance, will definitely have an effect in the present creating other opportunities for their dependants.
Growing up within Apartheid South Africa, I saw first hand how the segregation of races influences a community. White schools which was only for Whites had better facilities and better trained teachers. Everyone knows that when you live within a community where your neighbours are the Bankers, Lawyers, Estate Agents etc. it gives them access to insider information
[i] What does the South African Constitution say about your Human Rights? The DOJ & CD, page 5 - Fundamentals of Real Estate Practice, quoted in Colin Gordon, Mapping Decline: St. Louis and the Fate of the American City (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008), 83